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Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (EUROSTAT, OECD, CIS) official sources.
Definition: Employment, as referred to the System of National Accounts 2008, covers all persons - both employees and self-employed - engaged in a productive activity that falls within the production boundary of the system. It includes both the residents and the non-residents who work for resident producer units. In case of deviation, the actual definition is provided in the country footnote.
Employment data provided in this table generally differ from employment data provided in Gender Statistics, which cover only residents.
General note: The UNECE secretariat presents time series ready for immediate analysis. When appropriate, source segments with methodological differences have been linked or rescaled to build long consistent time series. As a result, absolute figures presented in this table may differ from those published by National Statistical Offices and should be taken with caution. However, the derived growth rates correspond to the originally reported series.
Regional aggregates are computed by UNECE secretariat. Population and employment aggregates are sums of national series. For national accounts: all current price aggregates are sums of national series converted into US$ at current PPPs of GDP; all constant price aggregates are calculated by summing up national series scaled to the price level of the common reference year 2010 and then converted into US$ using 2010 PPPs of GDP. Regional aggregates of CPI are calculated as weighted averages of national series using fixed 2010 weights based on final consumption expenditure in US$ at 2010 PPPs. Unemployment rates are the ratios of unemployed persons to labour force in the region.
Aggregates are computed for the following regions:
UNECE-52: Albania; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Malta; Montenegro; Netherlands; North Macedonia; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Moldova; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United States; Uzbekistan.
North America-2: Canada; United States.
European Union-28: Austria; Belgium; Bulgaria; Cyprus; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Malta; Netherlands; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; United Kingdom.
Euro area-19: Austria; Belgium; Cyprus; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Malta; Netherlands; Portugal; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain.
Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA): Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Republic of Moldova; Russian Federation; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan.
CIS-11: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Republic of Moldova; Russian Federation; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan.
Western Balkans-6: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Montenegro; North Macedonia; Serbia.
Employment: end of period.
Employment: LFS - based.
Geographical coverage: excludes Nagorno-Karabakh.Population: Number of population for the latest year refers to the beginning of the year, not to an annual average as usually. Employment: LFS - based.
Employment:LFS - based.
Geographical Coverage: Data for France include the overseas departments (DOM).
Geographical Coverage: from 1993 excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia (Tshinvali). Population: The decrease of population between 2014 and 2015 related to results of Census 2014. Employment: Register-based.
Employment: LFS-based.Designation and data provided by Israel. The position of the United Nations on the question of Jerusalem is contained in General Assembly resolution 181 (II) and subsequent resolutions of the General Assembly and the Security Council concerning this question. Data include East Jerusalem.
Geographical Coverage: from 1993 excludes Transnistria.Employment: LFS-based.
Employment: LFS-based. For the years 1990-2001 UNECE estimates.
Population: Number of population for the latest year refers to the beginning of the year, not to an annual average as usually.Employment: LFS-based.
Geographical Coverage: from 1999, excludes Kosovo and Metohija.Employment: LFS - based.
Employment: Annual breakdowns by activity and quarterly data are LFS-based.
Employment: LFS-based.Geographical coverage: from 2014, does not includes all territory of Ukraine.