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Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (CIS, EUROSTAT, IMF, OECD, World Bank) official sources. Indicators that base on OECD Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators are indicated (OECD).
General note: The UNECE secretariat presents time series ready for immediate analysis. When appropriate, source segments with methodological differences have been linked and rescaled to build long consistent time series.
The national accounts estimates are compiled according to 2008 SNA (System of National Accounts 2008) – e.g. EU member countries, United States, Canada, Ukraine - or 1993 SNA (System of National Accounts 1993).
Growth rates (per cent) are over the preceding period, unless otherwise specified.The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic impacts the production of statistics and may limit available resources and data sources. This may impact the quality of statistics for 2020, and could lead to later revisions.
Indicator measures the share of total domestic final demand (the difference between GDP and net exports) met by imports. Sometimes it is referred to as an import penetration rate. It should be noted that small economies or those rich in mineral resources may be specialized in their production, and so import higher proportions of other goods. In addition, the size of service sector is likely to affect this relationship. [ ( imports / ( final consumption expenditure + gross capital formation ) ) * 100 ]
Export performance measures the difference between the annual growth rate of exports of a country and the growth rate of imports to the country from the rest of the world. A result above zero level indicates a faster growth of exports compared to the growth of imports during the reference period. [ ( exports (t) / exports (t-1) ) – ( imports (t) / imports (t-1) ) * 100 ]
Export performance measures the difference between the annual growth of exports of a country and the growth of imports to the country from the rest of the world. A result indicates a relation of growth of exports compared to the growth of imports during the reference period in millions of US dollars. [ ( ( exports (t) - exports (t-1) ) – ( ( imports (t) - imports (t-1) ) ) ]
Growth rate of exports is an indicator of the annual growth or decline of exports from the previous year. [ ( exports (t) / exports (t-1) ) * 100 ]
Growth rate of imports is an indicator of the annual growth or decline of imports from the previous year. [ ( imports (t) / imports (t-1) ) * 100 ]
Growth rate of total trade describes either annual growth or decline of the volume of international trade from the previous year. [ ( exports + imports ) (t) / ( exports + imports ) (t-1) ) * 100 ]
Indicator shows whether or not a country’s imports are fully covered for by exports. The results describe how many per cent of imports are covered by exports. [ ( exports / imports ) * 100 ]
Total exports in GDP show the dependence of domestic producers on foreign markets. It may provide a better indicator of vulnerability to some types of external shocks than total trade in GDP, thus, it is one of the most frequently used globalization indicators. This ratio may indicate the intensity of a country’s trade. In the case of some countries, it may not show significant growth if, during the reference period, services that are not traded internationally and are included in GDP grow more rapidly than exports. Furthermore, larger economies tend to show lower export to GDP ratios because the larger domestic demand. [ ( exports / GDP ) * 100 ]
Total trade per capita measures the relative importance of international trade against the size of the country in terms of population. It is a very concrete measure of the value of international trade per person. [ ( absolute values of imports + exports ) / population ]
Total trade (the sum of exports and imports) as a share of GDP measures the dependence on foreign markets and intermediate inputs and, on the other hand, the importance of international trade in the country. It may give indications of the degree to which an economy is open to trade, but should be interpreted with care. This indicator may be called a trade dependence or openness indicator. [ ( (exports + imports ) / GDP ) * 100 ]
Trade balance to GDP highlights the countries with major surplus or deficit in the reference period in relation to the size of their economies. [ ( ( exports - imports ) / GDP ) * 100 ]
Indicator measures international transactions of the country with the rest of the world normalised against its own total trade. This indicator is sometimes also called the normalized trade balance. [ ( ( exports - imports ) / ( exports + imports ) ) * 100 ]
Trade balance shows the difference between exports and imports (surplus / deficit). This conventional measure reflects a country’s performance in international markets in terms of the net value of goods and services transactions between the country and the rest of the world. [ ( exports - imports ) ]