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Gender pay gap by level of education

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Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international official sources.

Definitions: Gender pay gap is the difference between men’s and women’s average earnings from employment, shown as a percentage of men’s average earnings.The UNECE gender statistics database presents two indicators on gender pay gap, which represent two different concerns of gender equality.

Gender Pay Gap in hourly wage rates refers to the gender gap in average hourly earnings. This indicator aims to capture the difference between men’s and women’s overall position in the labor market. It measures the difference between men’s and women’s wage rates independent of the number of hours worked, the type of activity or the type of occupation.

Gender Pay Gap in monthly earnings refers to the gender gap in average monthly earnings. This indicator aims to capture the variance between men’s and women’s earnings over a specific period of time. It reflects differences in time worked and type of work performed, which translates into gender differences in economic autonomy.

Wage rates are earnings elements meant to be measured, as stipulated by the ILO Resolution concerning an integrated system of wages statistics (ILO, 1973), in relation to an appropriate time period such as the hour, day, week, month or other customary period used for purposes of determining the wage rates concerned. In the case of these statistics, the reference time period is the hour.
Wage rates should include basic wages, cost-of-living allowances and other guaranteed and regularly paid allowances, but exclude overtime payments, bonuses and gratuities, family allowances and other social security payments made by employers. Ex gratia payments in kind, supplementary to normal wage rates, are also excluded.

Earnings relate to remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as for annual vacation, other paid leave or holidays.
Earnings include direct wages and salaries for the time worked, or work done, remuneration for time not worked, bonuses and gratuities and housing and family allowances paid by the employer directly to his employee.
Earnings exclude employers’ contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security and pension schemes and also the benefits received by employees under these schemes. Earnings also exclude severance and termination pay.
Gross earnings refer to total earnings before any deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes, life insurance premiums, union dues and other obligations of employees.
Net earnings refer to pay allocated to the worker after deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes, life insurance premiums, union dues and other obligations of employees.

Educational attainment is defined as the highest level successfully completed by the person, in the educational system of the country where the education was received. The levels of education are defined according to the ISCED 1997

General note:
Data are compiled from gross earnings and cover paid employees in all categories of activities and workers in full time and part-time employment. Any deviations from these are specified in the subsequent notes, to the extent the information is available.

Gender pay gap in hourly wage: For EU member countries, the data are compiled from hourly earnings available in Eurostat’s online database devired from the Structure of Earnings Surveys. Please refer to the EU Structure of Earnings Survey methods and their gender pay gap in unadjusted form for further explanations.
For non-EU countries, the figures are compiled from hourly earnings data provided by the countries in response to the UNECE questionnaire.
Gender pay gap in monthly earnings: Figures are compiled from monthly earnings data provided by the countries in response to the UNECE questionnaire and official earnings data available in Eurostat and ILO databases.
See the note ’Method and data sources for the gender pay gap in the UNECE Statistical Database’ for more information.

Country: Austria

Gross monthly earnings refer to the monthly amount in the main job. It includes usual paid overtime, tips and commission but excludes income from investments, assets, savings, stocks and shares. Profit share and bonuses are taken into account. Supplement payments (13th, 14th month, holiday pay...) are not included as they are not surveyed in this question, but they could be modeld (average gross monthly earning per group x14/12) under the simplified assumption that people are employed for the whole year and all receive these benefits.

Country: Austria

ISCED-11 is used from survey year 2014 on, before that ISCED-97.

Country: Belarus

Data refer to December of each year.

Country: Belarus

Collection method: enterprises-based data (non-state enterprises are excluded).

Country: Belgium

For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources.
For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, underlying average earnings data are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Surveys.

Country: Bulgaria

Data cover employees only and are compiled from enterprise survey (four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey). Overtime payments are included in average earnings.

Country: Bulgaria

From 2014 the educational breakdown is according to the ISCED-11.

Country: Canada

For GPG in hourly earnings, data covers employees only, self-employed are excluded. The Labour Force Survey does not produce monthly earning estimates, data provided were instead expressed as the average weekly gross earnings.

Country: Cyprus

Data are based on the results of the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) for years 2006 and 2010. Data for 2006 and 2010 have been revised to better reflect the definitions provided by UNECE.Hourly Wage Rate includes normal salary and regular bonuses paid to the employee (including payments for shift work). It excludes overtime payments, irregular bonuses and payments in kind.Monthly earnings include normal salary, regular bonuses paid to the employee (including payments for shift work) and payments for overtime. They exclude irregular bonuses and payments in kind.Coverage: Enterprises in all economic activities, excluding Agriculture, Fishing, Activities of Private Households and Extra-territorial Organisations. All enterprises covered had one or more employees. Self-employed are not covered.Geographical coverage: data refer to Government controlled areas only.

Country: Czechia

Reference period (2011 - 2012): For upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, data refer to ISCED 3 only (instead of 3-4), and fro tertiary education , data refer to ISCD 6 only (instead of 5-6).

Country: Czechia

Since 2011 all employees included in the sample surveys,including employees of enterprises with less than ten employees, employees of non-profit organizations, and also own-account workers that had not been measuredbefore.

Country: Denmark

For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources.
For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, underlying average earnings data are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey.

Country: Estonia

For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, data exclude self-employed persons. From 2014, breakdown by education is according to ISCED-2011.

Country: Finland

The method of defining part/full-timers changed in 2001.

Country: Finland

Data do not include irregular bonuses, housing and family allowances. Average monthly earnings data cover only full-time employees.

Country: France

For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources.
For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered in data up to 2009. From 2014 data include overseas departments.

Country: Germany

- Data from 2006 onwards are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys.
- Full-time workers and apprentices excluded.

Country: Greece

For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2002 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources.
For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data from 2006 on are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered.

Country: Hungary

Data include only full-time employees. B-S (-O), 10 employees or more

Country: Israel

Change in definition (2006 - 2012): Data cover both - paid employees and self-employed

Country: Israel

Change in definition (2006 - 2012): Data cover both - paid employees and self-employed

Country: Italy

For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys (SES). The difference with the SES definition is that the SES definition contains overtime earnings and hours. Due to methodological changes, the data for 2014 might be uncomparable with the previous years.
For monthly earnings, data are compiled from households surveys (EU-SILC) from 2006 to 2009 and from SES from 2010 onwards. The main difference with the SES definition is that the SES definition refers to the month of october and excludes bonuses and other items not payable each month. Due to methodological changes, the data for 2014 might be uncomparable with the previous years.

Country: Latvia

Additional information (2002 onward): Data by education level are calculated for enterprises with number of employees 10 and more for NACE Rev.1.1 sections C-K (excluding L) on 2002 and 2006 and for NACE Rev.2 sections B-S (excluding O) on 2010 according to the methodology of structural indicator of European Comission Gender Pay Gap (GPG).

Country: Latvia

Data cover paid employees only. Part-timers earnings have been equivalised to fill-time units. All data exclude remuneration of kind.

Country: Lithuania

The gross earnings data on which GPG in monthly earnings are based exclude housing and family allowances. From 2014 data are compiled according to ISCED-2011.

Country: Luxembourg

For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys.
For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, data are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Average monthly earnings are based on full-time equivalent employees, reference month is october. NACE B to S exclunding O

Country: Malta

For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources.
For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered.

Country: North Macedonia

For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered

Country: Norway

Break in methodlogy (2005): Figures from 2005 for wages by level of education are not comparable with the figures for 2004 and earlier, due to changes in definitions.

Country: Norway

Change in definition (2000 onward): Data refer to full-time equivalent of paid employees only.

Country: Poland

Change in definition (2001 - 2004): Data cover employees only. Family allowances are not inclueded.
Data refer to full-time employees only.

Country: Poland

Change in definition (2006 onward): Data cover employees only. Family allowances are not inclueded.

Country: Portugal

For gender pay gap in hourly earnings, data from 2006 are compiled from European Structure of Earnings Surveys. Earlier data are compiled from national sources.
For gender pay gap in monthly earnings, the underlying average earnings data for 2006 are compiled from EU Structure of Earnings Survey and cover employees in enterprises of 10 or more employees only. People working in public sector are not covered.

Country: Romania

Data by education level are derived from the Structure of Earnings Survey and related to enterprises with 10+ employees. The underlying average monthly gross earnings refers to October.

Country: Russian Federation

Change in definition (2005 - 2013): Underlying Earnings data do not include end of year, seniority, bonus payments and other nonrecurrent payments . Data include employees worked whole October; data exclude non-regular, temporary, contractual, absent due to different reasons (maternity, sabbatical, annual leave), part-time workers and others.

Country: Slovakia

Additional information (2000 - 2012): The concept of Earnings in definitions, geographical coverage, reference period are in compliance with the request.

Country: Slovenia

Break in methodlogy (2007 - 2013): In 2007 EURO was introduced instead of the national currency SIT.

Country: Slovenia

Change in definition (2003 - 2013): Data refer to full-time employees only.

Country: Slovenia

Provisional value (2012):

Country: Spain

Additional information (2000): The results have been obtained as annual average of quarterly data form a wage survey. The coverage are local units with 5 or more employees.

Country: Spain

From 2002-2003, the coverage is local units with 10 or more employees. Since 2004, coverage has been extended to all size units. ISCED-97 is used 2002-2010 and ISCED-11 in 2014.

Country: Sweden

Change in definition (2000 onwards): The Data cover only employees and exlude irregular bonuses and gratuities.

Country: Switzerland

For monthly earnings, up to 2010 the data cover employees in private and public federal sectors. since 2012, the data concern only the private sector.

Country: Switzerland

The underlying average earnings data exclude overtime pay and family allowances and refer to full-time equivalents.
GPG figures computed from median earnings instead of averages.