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Researchers by sector of research and sex

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Source: UNECE Statistical Database, compiled from national and international (Eurostat) official sources.

Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems and also in the management of the projects concerned (see also: 'Frascati Manual - Proposed standard practice for surveys on research and experimental development', paras. 302-305).
The business enterprise sector includes: All firms, organisations and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price; The private non-profit institutes mainly serving them.
The government sector includes: All departments, offices and other bodies, which furnish but normally do not sell to the community those common services, other than higher education, which cannot otherwise be conveniently and economically provided and administer the state and the economic and social policy of the community. (Public enterprises are included in the business enterprise sector); Non-profit institutes (NPIs) controlled and mainly financed by government.
The higher education sector includes all universities, colleges of technology and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations and clinics operating under the direct control of or administered by or associated with higher education establishments.
The private non-profit sector includes: Non-market, private non-profit institutions serving households (i.e. the general public); Private individuals or households.

Country: Canada

Break in methodlogy (2000): Business enterprise sector`s collection methodology was changed.

Country: Canada

Change in definition (2000 - 2013): Government sector does not include all provinces and territories.

Country: Canada

Reference period (2000 - 2013): Fiscal years are used for government and higher education sector (April to March).

Country: Canada

Sector subtotals do not sum to “All sectors” category as there are researchers that work in industries other than the four select sectors listed in the table (Groupings refer to NOC 2011 and NAICS 2012 classifications.)

Country: Kazakhstan

Additional information (2000 - 2012): Data were formed on the basis of the "Report on the implementation of scientific and technical work"

Country: Republic of Moldova

Change in definition (2001 - 2012): Data for researchers include only those who are directly involved in a research.

Country: Republic of Moldova

Data exclude the territory of the Transnistria and municipality of Bender

Country: Serbia

Territorial change (1995 - 2013): The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia has no available data on the AP Kosovo and Metohija.