Indicator 9.5.1

Indicator 9.5.1

Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP, %

Research and development (R&D) expenditure as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the amount of R&D expenditure divided by the total output of the economy.

INDICATOR 9.5.1
Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP. Research and development (R&D) expenditure as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the amount of R&D expenditure divided by the total output of the economy.
TARGET 9.5
Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
GOAL 9
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
See United Nations Global SDG Database

Indicator 9.5.1

Indicator 9.5.1

Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP, %

Heat map
Bubble map
INDICATOR 9.5.1
Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP. Research and development (R&D) expenditure as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the amount of R&D expenditure divided by the total output of the economy.
TARGET 9.5
Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
GOAL 9
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
See United Nations Global SDG Database

Indicator 9.5.1

Indicator 9.5.1

Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP, %

INDICATOR 9.5.1
Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP. Research and development (R&D) expenditure as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the amount of R&D expenditure divided by the total output of the economy.
TARGET 9.5
Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
GOAL 9
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
See United Nations Global SDG Database

Indicator 9.5.1

Indicator 9.5.1

Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP, %

Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Albania .. .. 0.1 0.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Armenia 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2
Austria 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.2 ..
Azerbaijan 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Belarus 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
Belgium 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 ..
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 .. .. 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Bulgaria 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.8 ..
Canada 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6
Croatia 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 ..
Cyprus 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 ..
Czechia 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.8 ..
Denmark 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.8 3.1 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.1 ..
Estonia 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.6 2.3 2.1 1.7 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.3 ..
Finland 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.8 ..
France 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 ..
Georgia 0.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Germany 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 ..
Greece 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.1 ..
Hungary 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.3 ..
Iceland 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.5 2.6 .. 2.4 .. 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.1 ..
Ireland 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 ..
Israel 4.1 4.1 4.4 4.3 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 ..
Italy 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 ..
Kazakhstan 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1
Kyrgyzstan 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 ..
Latvia 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.5 ..
Lithuania 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.9 ..
Luxembourg 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 ..
Malta 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 ..
Monaco 0.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Montenegro 0.9 1.2 1.1 .. .. .. 0.3 .. 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 .. ..
Netherlands 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 ..
North Macedonia 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Norway 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.1 ..
Poland 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 ..
Portugal 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.3 ..
Republic of Moldova 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Romania 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 ..
Russian Federation 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 ..
Serbia 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9
Slovakia 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.8 0.9 ..
Slovenia 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.9 ..
Spain 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 ..
Sweden 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 ..
Switzerland .. .. .. 2.7 .. .. .. 3.2 .. .. 3.4 .. .. ..
Tajikistan 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Turkey 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 ..
Ukraine 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5
United Kingdom 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 ..
United States 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 ..
Uzbekistan 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1
Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Albania .. .. 0.1 0.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Armenia 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2
Austria 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.2 ..
Azerbaijan 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Belarus 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
Belgium 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 ..
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 .. .. 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Bulgaria 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.8 ..
Canada 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6
Croatia 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 ..
Cyprus 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 ..
Czechia 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.8 ..
Denmark 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.8 3.1 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.1 ..
Estonia 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.6 2.3 2.1 1.7 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.3 ..
Finland 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.8 ..
France 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 ..
Georgia 0.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Germany 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 ..
Greece 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.1 ..
Hungary 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.3 ..
Iceland 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.5 2.6 .. 2.4 .. 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.1 ..
Ireland 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 ..
Israel 4.1 4.1 4.4 4.3 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 ..
Italy 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 ..
Kazakhstan 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1
Kyrgyzstan 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 ..
Latvia 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.5 ..
Lithuania 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.9 ..
Luxembourg 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 ..
Malta 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 ..
Monaco 0.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Montenegro 0.9 1.2 1.1 .. .. .. 0.3 .. 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 .. ..
Netherlands 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 ..
North Macedonia 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Norway 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.1 ..
Poland 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 ..
Portugal 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.3 ..
Republic of Moldova 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Romania 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 ..
Russian Federation 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 ..
Serbia 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9
Slovakia 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.8 0.9 ..
Slovenia 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.9 ..
Spain 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 ..
Sweden 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 ..
Switzerland .. .. .. 2.7 .. .. .. 3.2 .. .. 3.4 .. .. ..
Tajikistan 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Turkey 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 ..
Ukraine 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5
United Kingdom 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 ..
United States 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 ..
Uzbekistan 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1
INDICATOR 9.5.1
Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP. Research and development (R&D) expenditure as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the amount of R&D expenditure divided by the total output of the economy.
TARGET 9.5
Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
GOAL 9
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
See United Nations Global SDG Database

Footnote