Indicator 9.5.2

Indicator 9.5.2

Researchers (in full-time equivalent), per 1,000,000 population

The researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants is a direct measure of the number of research and development workers per 1 million people.

INDICATOR 9.5.2
Researchers (in full-time equivalent). The researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants is a direct measure of the number of research and development workers per 1 million people.
TARGET 9.5
Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
GOAL 9
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
See United Nations Global SDG Database

Indicator 9.5.2

Indicator 9.5.2

Researchers (in full-time equivalent), per 1,000,000 population

Heat map
Bubble map
INDICATOR 9.5.2
Researchers (in full-time equivalent). The researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants is a direct measure of the number of research and development workers per 1 million people.
TARGET 9.5
Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
GOAL 9
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
See United Nations Global SDG Database

Indicator 9.5.2

Indicator 9.5.2

Researchers (in full-time equivalent), per 1,000,000 population

INDICATOR 9.5.2
Researchers (in full-time equivalent). The researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants is a direct measure of the number of research and development workers per 1 million people.
TARGET 9.5
Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
GOAL 9
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
See United Nations Global SDG Database

Indicator 9.5.2

Indicator 9.5.2

Researchers (in full-time equivalent), per 1,000,000 population

Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Albania .. .. .. 155.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Austria 3449.3 3524.1 3810.0 4136.9 4140.1 4349.7 4390.3 4669.4 4724.7 4947.9 5019.4 5136.8 .. ..
Belgium 3142.7 3284.4 3395.0 3411.8 3519.9 3732.8 3875.6 4113.3 4155.9 4528.9 4711.0 4780.5 4946.1 ..
Bosnia and Herzegovina 67.1 178.2 198.0 .. .. .. .. 160.1 233.9 292.4 365.2 420.0 485.4 471.3
Bulgaria 1307.8 1354.5 1478.6 1513.0 1601.4 1478.7 1613.0 1540.8 1683.8 1821.9 1977.3 2237.3 2125.2 ..
Canada 4250.1 4323.1 4595.4 4715.4 4451.5 4646.3 4780.1 4627.5 4623.1 4541.8 4523.1 4263.8 .. ..
Croatia 1308.1 1322.0 1405.0 1538.6 1596.5 1641.3 1587.5 1556.8 1526.7 1437.4 1504.2 1850.5 1868.3 ..
Cyprus 916.7 986.9 1029.2 1011.4 1065.8 1077.7 1063.8 1017.5 1036.1 1064.9 1009.1 1050.5 1174.4 ..
Czechia 2356.1 2550.6 2691.5 2857.0 2742.1 2774.0 2903.7 3139.2 3237.2 3402.8 3592.1 3516.2 3682.0 ..
Denmark 5197.4 5298.5 5516.4 6493.9 6657.0 6739.2 7017.9 7143.3 7071.1 7310.7 7528.3 7846.7 7898.6 ..
Estonia 2457.1 2603.5 2744.9 2969.2 3228.7 3060.6 3397.6 3462.9 3341.0 3284.3 3183.2 3295.1 3542.5 ..
Finland 7526.6 7657.2 7361.5 7684.8 7646.3 7720.2 7421.6 7473.7 7206.5 7009.3 6844.5 6531.5 6721.9 ..
France 3313.3 3423.7 3585.8 3659.9 3747.3 3873.0 3942.4 4073.3 4154.8 4233.6 4307.5 .. 4450.5 ..
Georgia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 566.4 1059.5 1280.5 1306.6 1307.4 1463.8
Germany 3335.0 3434.6 3578.5 3733.3 3922.2 4058.0 4188.8 4352.3 4366.7 4320.7 4743.8 4861.7 5003.0 ..
Greece 1745.5 1779.7 1889.7 .. .. .. 2278.5 2300.3 2721.3 2791.9 3256.0 2769.9 3328.9 ..
Hungary 1574.3 1745.0 1734.9 1851.9 2014.6 2149.8 2326.2 2416.5 2546.1 2673.4 2589.1 2645.8 2921.5 ..
Iceland 7305.3 8006.7 7236.0 7423.6 7926.0 .. 6981.4 .. 5648.4 .. 5887.9 6640.5 .. ..
Ireland 2798.0 2877.1 2935.4 3284.1 3156.9 3112.6 3325.8 4854.0 5136.5 5304.5 4784.4 4214.6 4114.8 ..
Israel .. .. .. .. .. .. 7370.5 8341.7 .. .. .. .. .. ..
Italy 1415.4 1510.5 1583.0 1625.3 1723.0 1743.3 1781.4 1848.6 1930.7 1956.4 2077.9 2204.1 2244.9 ..
Kazakhstan .. .. 406.6 376.5 348.6 370.5 385.9 612.2 737.2 798.7 777.1 693.7 666.1 666.9
Latvia 1457.4 1768.5 1891.2 2012.7 1688.3 1838.7 1885.3 1886.9 1772.7 1854.3 1808.6 1596.5 1784.6 ..
Lithuania 2283.6 2415.7 2598.1 2624.8 2680.5 2752.7 2721.0 2634.3 2843.9 3054.0 2785.6 2950.3 3060.7 ..
Luxembourg 4864.1 4411.8 4633.7 4712.8 4826.3 5145.0 5451.4 4352.2 4614.2 4741.1 4480.0 4668.0 4615.6 ..
Malta 1183.7 1282.2 1206.3 1321.2 1200.3 1417.0 1785.9 1986.7 1886.7 1831.7 1891.3 2054.6 2041.4 ..
Monaco 295.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Montenegro .. .. .. .. .. .. 649.8 .. 645.0 671.8 834.6 715.8 .. ..
Netherlands 2923.8 3232.9 3093.1 3061.7 2824.3 3219.0 3664.4 4361.4 4551.9 4512.6 4673.1 4776.8 5011.4 ..
North Macedonia 540.2 514.8 502.6 468.2 431.6 532.1 445.2 611.8 675.3 837.6 858.5 854.3 729.4 799.3
Norway 4576.6 4831.9 5159.7 5361.1 5443.1 5413.8 5502.5 5553.0 5573.8 5685.6 5891.0 6077.6 6488.8 ..
Poland 1620.1 1553.2 1600.8 1611.3 1593.3 1683.1 1675.1 1752.7 1873.1 2064.0 2171.6 2320.8 2542.5 ..
Portugal 2010.4 2338.2 2664.9 3813.8 3756.5 3918.8 4168.3 4037.3 3610.6 3662.4 3729.8 4004.5 4307.9 ..
Republic of Moldova 719.5 700.1 725.5 822.1 802.8 760.9 777.3 768.6 737.3 746.8 758.2 725.7 723.9 696.1
Romania 1071.9 895.8 894.2 931.1 933.8 966.2 790.7 890.7 922.7 903.8 876.2 911.6 891.3 ..
Russian Federation 3233.6 3238.1 3274.2 3149.9 3085.7 3081.1 3114.6 3078.4 3052.7 3075.1 3098.1 2952.2 2821.5 ..
Serbia .. .. 1195.6 1360.4 1429.4 1514.8 1624.0 1643.4 1727.0 1831.0 2071.2 2132.8 2079.2 2087.2
Slovakia 2022.7 2181.3 2288.4 2331.3 2460.6 2809.4 2833.4 2820.2 2716.4 2715.6 2650.2 2600.0 2794.8 ..
Slovenia 2633.1 2924.9 3106.2 3475.9 3661.1 3769.8 4277.3 4317.2 4220.3 4147.1 3814.2 3914.3 4475.5 ..
Spain 2492.6 2588.9 2699.2 2843.3 2872.3 2869.2 2766.0 2693.8 2625.7 2613.1 2623.4 2715.5 2855.4 ..
Sweden 6085.1 6126.6 4999.7 5437.2 5079.7 5251.5 5144.6 5164.1 6674.3 6876.0 6834.0 7154.5 7597.0 ..
Switzerland .. .. .. 3298.2 .. .. .. 4468.6 .. .. 5271.9 .. .. ..
Turkey 576.4 620.5 713.8 750.0 809.8 889.6 981.8 1100.1 1173.2 1160.9 1211.8 1254.7 1379.4 ..
Ukraine .. 1475.4 1455.6 1428.3 1345.6 1328.0 1257.9 1231.0 1162.0 1023.9 1006.0 1037.2 994.1 988.1
United Kingdom 4123.5 4176.3 4111.1 4053.9 4076.6 4043.3 3926.1 3969.9 4119.5 4227.6 4319.5 4357.9 4341.2 ..
United States 3742.5 3806.3 3781.2 3935.5 4090.3 3885.1 4027.1 3990.6 4090.9 4204.7 4267.2 4245.3 .. ..
Uzbekistan 632.8 565.7 556.9 580.4 573.0 545.0 574.8 513.1 507.0 501.2 497.4 506.0 495.6 476.2
Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Albania .. .. .. 155.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Austria 3449.3 3524.1 3810.0 4136.9 4140.1 4349.7 4390.3 4669.4 4724.7 4947.9 5019.4 5136.8 .. ..
Belgium 3142.7 3284.4 3395.0 3411.8 3519.9 3732.8 3875.6 4113.3 4155.9 4528.9 4711.0 4780.5 4946.1 ..
Bosnia and Herzegovina 67.1 178.2 198.0 .. .. .. .. 160.1 233.9 292.4 365.2 420.0 485.4 471.3
Bulgaria 1307.8 1354.5 1478.6 1513.0 1601.4 1478.7 1613.0 1540.8 1683.8 1821.9 1977.3 2237.3 2125.2 ..
Canada 4250.1 4323.1 4595.4 4715.4 4451.5 4646.3 4780.1 4627.5 4623.1 4541.8 4523.1 4263.8 .. ..
Croatia 1308.1 1322.0 1405.0 1538.6 1596.5 1641.3 1587.5 1556.8 1526.7 1437.4 1504.2 1850.5 1868.3 ..
Cyprus 916.7 986.9 1029.2 1011.4 1065.8 1077.7 1063.8 1017.5 1036.1 1064.9 1009.1 1050.5 1174.4 ..
Czechia 2356.1 2550.6 2691.5 2857.0 2742.1 2774.0 2903.7 3139.2 3237.2 3402.8 3592.1 3516.2 3682.0 ..
Denmark 5197.4 5298.5 5516.4 6493.9 6657.0 6739.2 7017.9 7143.3 7071.1 7310.7 7528.3 7846.7 7898.6 ..
Estonia 2457.1 2603.5 2744.9 2969.2 3228.7 3060.6 3397.6 3462.9 3341.0 3284.3 3183.2 3295.1 3542.5 ..
Finland 7526.6 7657.2 7361.5 7684.8 7646.3 7720.2 7421.6 7473.7 7206.5 7009.3 6844.5 6531.5 6721.9 ..
France 3313.3 3423.7 3585.8 3659.9 3747.3 3873.0 3942.4 4073.3 4154.8 4233.6 4307.5 .. 4450.5 ..
Georgia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 566.4 1059.5 1280.5 1306.6 1307.4 1463.8
Germany 3335.0 3434.6 3578.5 3733.3 3922.2 4058.0 4188.8 4352.3 4366.7 4320.7 4743.8 4861.7 5003.0 ..
Greece 1745.5 1779.7 1889.7 .. .. .. 2278.5 2300.3 2721.3 2791.9 3256.0 2769.9 3328.9 ..
Hungary 1574.3 1745.0 1734.9 1851.9 2014.6 2149.8 2326.2 2416.5 2546.1 2673.4 2589.1 2645.8 2921.5 ..
Iceland 7305.3 8006.7 7236.0 7423.6 7926.0 .. 6981.4 .. 5648.4 .. 5887.9 6640.5 .. ..
Ireland 2798.0 2877.1 2935.4 3284.1 3156.9 3112.6 3325.8 4854.0 5136.5 5304.5 4784.4 4214.6 4114.8 ..
Israel .. .. .. .. .. .. 7370.5 8341.7 .. .. .. .. .. ..
Italy 1415.4 1510.5 1583.0 1625.3 1723.0 1743.3 1781.4 1848.6 1930.7 1956.4 2077.9 2204.1 2244.9 ..
Kazakhstan .. .. 406.6 376.5 348.6 370.5 385.9 612.2 737.2 798.7 777.1 693.7 666.1 666.9
Latvia 1457.4 1768.5 1891.2 2012.7 1688.3 1838.7 1885.3 1886.9 1772.7 1854.3 1808.6 1596.5 1784.6 ..
Lithuania 2283.6 2415.7 2598.1 2624.8 2680.5 2752.7 2721.0 2634.3 2843.9 3054.0 2785.6 2950.3 3060.7 ..
Luxembourg 4864.1 4411.8 4633.7 4712.8 4826.3 5145.0 5451.4 4352.2 4614.2 4741.1 4480.0 4668.0 4615.6 ..
Malta 1183.7 1282.2 1206.3 1321.2 1200.3 1417.0 1785.9 1986.7 1886.7 1831.7 1891.3 2054.6 2041.4 ..
Monaco 295.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Montenegro .. .. .. .. .. .. 649.8 .. 645.0 671.8 834.6 715.8 .. ..
Netherlands 2923.8 3232.9 3093.1 3061.7 2824.3 3219.0 3664.4 4361.4 4551.9 4512.6 4673.1 4776.8 5011.4 ..
North Macedonia 540.2 514.8 502.6 468.2 431.6 532.1 445.2 611.8 675.3 837.6 858.5 854.3 729.4 799.3
Norway 4576.6 4831.9 5159.7 5361.1 5443.1 5413.8 5502.5 5553.0 5573.8 5685.6 5891.0 6077.6 6488.8 ..
Poland 1620.1 1553.2 1600.8 1611.3 1593.3 1683.1 1675.1 1752.7 1873.1 2064.0 2171.6 2320.8 2542.5 ..
Portugal 2010.4 2338.2 2664.9 3813.8 3756.5 3918.8 4168.3 4037.3 3610.6 3662.4 3729.8 4004.5 4307.9 ..
Republic of Moldova 719.5 700.1 725.5 822.1 802.8 760.9 777.3 768.6 737.3 746.8 758.2 725.7 723.9 696.1
Romania 1071.9 895.8 894.2 931.1 933.8 966.2 790.7 890.7 922.7 903.8 876.2 911.6 891.3 ..
Russian Federation 3233.6 3238.1 3274.2 3149.9 3085.7 3081.1 3114.6 3078.4 3052.7 3075.1 3098.1 2952.2 2821.5 ..
Serbia .. .. 1195.6 1360.4 1429.4 1514.8 1624.0 1643.4 1727.0 1831.0 2071.2 2132.8 2079.2 2087.2
Slovakia 2022.7 2181.3 2288.4 2331.3 2460.6 2809.4 2833.4 2820.2 2716.4 2715.6 2650.2 2600.0 2794.8 ..
Slovenia 2633.1 2924.9 3106.2 3475.9 3661.1 3769.8 4277.3 4317.2 4220.3 4147.1 3814.2 3914.3 4475.5 ..
Spain 2492.6 2588.9 2699.2 2843.3 2872.3 2869.2 2766.0 2693.8 2625.7 2613.1 2623.4 2715.5 2855.4 ..
Sweden 6085.1 6126.6 4999.7 5437.2 5079.7 5251.5 5144.6 5164.1 6674.3 6876.0 6834.0 7154.5 7597.0 ..
Switzerland .. .. .. 3298.2 .. .. .. 4468.6 .. .. 5271.9 .. .. ..
Turkey 576.4 620.5 713.8 750.0 809.8 889.6 981.8 1100.1 1173.2 1160.9 1211.8 1254.7 1379.4 ..
Ukraine .. 1475.4 1455.6 1428.3 1345.6 1328.0 1257.9 1231.0 1162.0 1023.9 1006.0 1037.2 994.1 988.1
United Kingdom 4123.5 4176.3 4111.1 4053.9 4076.6 4043.3 3926.1 3969.9 4119.5 4227.6 4319.5 4357.9 4341.2 ..
United States 3742.5 3806.3 3781.2 3935.5 4090.3 3885.1 4027.1 3990.6 4090.9 4204.7 4267.2 4245.3 .. ..
Uzbekistan 632.8 565.7 556.9 580.4 573.0 545.0 574.8 513.1 507.0 501.2 497.4 506.0 495.6 476.2
INDICATOR 9.5.2
Researchers (in full-time equivalent). The researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants is a direct measure of the number of research and development workers per 1 million people.
TARGET 9.5
Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
GOAL 9
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
See United Nations Global SDG Database

Footnote