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Share of women among researchers



Share of women among researchers
Percent

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Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Azerbaijan 51.7 52.0 51.1 51.5 53.8 54.9 53.6 51.2 53.2 53.5 53.3 56.0 57.9
Austria .. 25.3 26.4 .. 28.4 .. 29.0 .. 29.6 .. 29.5 .. ..
Armenia 46.6 46.1 45.6 48.2 46.9 48.2 45.3 47.0 51.0 53.7 53.3 .. ..
Belgium 29.6 30.7 31.1 32.2 32.7 33.2 33.5 .. 33.4 .. 34.1 .. ..
Bosnia and Herzegovina .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 34.5 38.9 44.3 44.4 47.1 ..
Bulgaria 45.5 44.6 46.8 47.0 47.6 48.6 49.1 48.6 49.7 49.5 47.9 49.1 ..
Belarus 43.2 43.7 43.3 43.9 42.7 42.2 41.7 41.1 41.1 41.2 40.5 39.6 39.7
Canada 56.3 55.1 59.8 56.5 56.0 56.9 63.6 61.1 59.9 60.3 58.8 58.7 64.8
Croatia 44.6 44.1 44.6 45.5 46.4 46.9 47.3 47.7 47.8 48.9 48.9 47.7 ..
Cyprus 32.6 32.2 32.6 33.4 35.6 36.0 36.9 37.3 38.3 38.2 37.9 37.3 ..
Czechia 28.8 28.5 28.3 28.5 28.9 28.1 28.2 27.5 28.3 27.2 26.9 26.7 26.8
Denmark 29.7 .. 30.2 .. 31.7 32.6 33.1 35.4 34.5 .. 33.8 .. 35.8
Estonia 40.8 42.4 44.3 41.7 42.5 43.4 43.7 44.0 44.4 44.0 43.9 43.6 ..
Finland 30.2 31.6 31.5 30.7 31.4 31.9 32.1 32.2 31.5 32.1 32.3 32.5 ..
France 28.0 27.4 27.8 27.4 26.9 25.3 25.6 25.5 25.5 26.1 .. .. ..
Georgia 31.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Germany 21.3 .. 23.2 .. 25.0 .. 26.8 .. 27.9 .. 28.0 .. ..
Greece 36.4 .. .. .. .. .. 36.7 .. 39.4 .. 38.0 .. ..
Hungary 34.2 33.5 33.5 33.0 32.1 32.0 31.7 30.9 30.3 30.4 30.8 30.8 ..
Iceland 39.3 38.6 37.8 37.9 42.6 .. 37.3 .. 43.8 .. 45.6 47.2 46.4
Ireland 30.3 31.2 32.0 32.3 34.2 34.4 32.6 44.4 35.3 .. 35.3 .. ..
Italy 32.3 33.3 33.2 33.2 33.8 34.5 34.9 35.5 35.7 36.0 36.0 35.2 ..
Kazakhstan .. 50.5 53.3 53.1 50.8 50.7 51.1 49.9 51.7 52.1 52.1 53.2 51.8
Kyrgyzstan 44.7 44.9 43.7 45.8 43.4 44.4 43.2 43.5 57.9 48.0 50.6 49.4 46.5
Latvia 51.5 47.5 52.4 54.7 52.4 50.8 53.3 52.8 52.0 .. 51.0 52.2 ..
Lithuania 48.6 49.3 50.4 51.4 51.0 51.2 52.1 52.4 51.2 50.3 50.7 51.6 ..
Luxembourg 18.2 .. 24.1 .. 21.2 .. 22.9 .. 27.3 .. 28.9 .. ..
Malta 26.2 26.1 25.1 27.7 29.4 28.0 26.8 29.4 30.4 30.4 28.5 28.7 ..
Republic of Moldova 43.4 41.7 45.1 45.6 47.3 46.8 48.0 48.1 48.0 47.8 49.1 49.1 48.5
Montenegro 39.8 38.4 41.3 44.8 46.2 46.4 50.1 .. 50.9 49.1 .. .. ..
Netherlands 21.0 .. 23.0 .. 25.9 .. 24.2 24.0 23.6 23.4 25.4 25.8 ..
Norway 31.6 .. 33.5 34.1 35.2 35.7 36.2 36.2 36.9 37.4 37.4 37.6 ..
Poland 39.3 39.5 39.9 39.5 39.5 39.0 38.6 38.3 37.8 37.2 37.0 36.4 ..
Portugal 44.4 43.8 43.4 43.0 44.3 43.9 44.0 45.0 45.4 44.3 44.1 43.5 ..
Romania 45.3 44.3 44.7 44.8 44.7 44.0 46.1 45.1 45.7 46.0 46.2 45.8 ..
Russian Federation 42.4 42.2 41.8 41.8 41.9 41.7 41.4 41.2 40.9 .. .. .. ..
Serbia 43.7 44.7 47.0 47.2 47.4 48.8 49.3 49.6 50.5 49.1 49.2 48.4 50.0
Slovakia 41.5 41.8 42.3 42.3 42.5 42.4 42.6 42.3 42.7 42.5 42.2 41.4 ..
Slovenia 34.8 35.3 34.9 35.1 35.7 36.3 36.4 35.8 36.0 36.1 36.5 34.5 ..
Spain 36.7 36.7 37.0 37.5 38.1 38.4 38.7 38.8 39.3 39.6 40.0 40.2 ..
Sweden 35.7 .. 35.0 .. 35.7 .. 37.2 .. 33.3 .. 33.7 .. ..
Switzerland .. .. .. 30.2 .. .. .. 32.4 .. .. 33.5 .. ..
Tajikistan .. .. .. .. .. .. 26.7 31.1 36.2 37.6 39.8 41.6 40.0
Turkey 36.1 36.3 36.7 36.5 36.3 35.8 35.6 36.2 36.2 36.9 37.3 36.7 37.0
Ukraine 44.1 44.2 43.9 45.0 44.8 45.2 45.5 45.8 45.8 45.8 46.3 45.0 44.7
North Macedonia 49.1 50.1 50.0 51.4 51.3 54.8 55.6 52.6 .. .. 49.0 50.8 ..
United Kingdom 35.7 .. 36.8 .. 37.9 38.3 37.7 37.8 38.1 37.4 38.6 38.7 ..
Uzbekistan 39.4 42.3 41.2 40.8 43.0 41.2 40.9 41.2 41.7 40.6 41.1 41.1 41.1
Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Azerbaijan 51.7 52.0 51.1 51.5 53.8 54.9 53.6 51.2 53.2 53.5 53.3 56.0 57.9
Austria .. 25.3 26.4 .. 28.4 .. 29.0 .. 29.6 .. 29.5 .. ..
Armenia 46.6 46.1 45.6 48.2 46.9 48.2 45.3 47.0 51.0 53.7 53.3 .. ..
Belgium 29.6 30.7 31.1 32.2 32.7 33.2 33.5 .. 33.4 .. 34.1 .. ..
Bosnia and Herzegovina .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 34.5 38.9 44.3 44.4 47.1 ..
Bulgaria 45.5 44.6 46.8 47.0 47.6 48.6 49.1 48.6 49.7 49.5 47.9 49.1 ..
Belarus 43.2 43.7 43.3 43.9 42.7 42.2 41.7 41.1 41.1 41.2 40.5 39.6 39.7
Canada 56.3 55.1 59.8 56.5 56.0 56.9 63.6 61.1 59.9 60.3 58.8 58.7 64.8
Croatia 44.6 44.1 44.6 45.5 46.4 46.9 47.3 47.7 47.8 48.9 48.9 47.7 ..
Cyprus 32.6 32.2 32.6 33.4 35.6 36.0 36.9 37.3 38.3 38.2 37.9 37.3 ..
Czechia 28.8 28.5 28.3 28.5 28.9 28.1 28.2 27.5 28.3 27.2 26.9 26.7 26.8
Denmark 29.7 .. 30.2 .. 31.7 32.6 33.1 35.4 34.5 .. 33.8 .. 35.8
Estonia 40.8 42.4 44.3 41.7 42.5 43.4 43.7 44.0 44.4 44.0 43.9 43.6 ..
Finland 30.2 31.6 31.5 30.7 31.4 31.9 32.1 32.2 31.5 32.1 32.3 32.5 ..
France 28.0 27.4 27.8 27.4 26.9 25.3 25.6 25.5 25.5 26.1 .. .. ..
Georgia 31.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Germany 21.3 .. 23.2 .. 25.0 .. 26.8 .. 27.9 .. 28.0 .. ..
Greece 36.4 .. .. .. .. .. 36.7 .. 39.4 .. 38.0 .. ..
Hungary 34.2 33.5 33.5 33.0 32.1 32.0 31.7 30.9 30.3 30.4 30.8 30.8 ..
Iceland 39.3 38.6 37.8 37.9 42.6 .. 37.3 .. 43.8 .. 45.6 47.2 46.4
Ireland 30.3 31.2 32.0 32.3 34.2 34.4 32.6 44.4 35.3 .. 35.3 .. ..
Italy 32.3 33.3 33.2 33.2 33.8 34.5 34.9 35.5 35.7 36.0 36.0 35.2 ..
Kazakhstan .. 50.5 53.3 53.1 50.8 50.7 51.1 49.9 51.7 52.1 52.1 53.2 51.8
Kyrgyzstan 44.7 44.9 43.7 45.8 43.4 44.4 43.2 43.5 57.9 48.0 50.6 49.4 46.5
Latvia 51.5 47.5 52.4 54.7 52.4 50.8 53.3 52.8 52.0 .. 51.0 52.2 ..
Lithuania 48.6 49.3 50.4 51.4 51.0 51.2 52.1 52.4 51.2 50.3 50.7 51.6 ..
Luxembourg 18.2 .. 24.1 .. 21.2 .. 22.9 .. 27.3 .. 28.9 .. ..
Malta 26.2 26.1 25.1 27.7 29.4 28.0 26.8 29.4 30.4 30.4 28.5 28.7 ..
Republic of Moldova 43.4 41.7 45.1 45.6 47.3 46.8 48.0 48.1 48.0 47.8 49.1 49.1 48.5
Montenegro 39.8 38.4 41.3 44.8 46.2 46.4 50.1 .. 50.9 49.1 .. .. ..
Netherlands 21.0 .. 23.0 .. 25.9 .. 24.2 24.0 23.6 23.4 25.4 25.8 ..
Norway 31.6 .. 33.5 34.1 35.2 35.7 36.2 36.2 36.9 37.4 37.4 37.6 ..
Poland 39.3 39.5 39.9 39.5 39.5 39.0 38.6 38.3 37.8 37.2 37.0 36.4 ..
Portugal 44.4 43.8 43.4 43.0 44.3 43.9 44.0 45.0 45.4 44.3 44.1 43.5 ..
Romania 45.3 44.3 44.7 44.8 44.7 44.0 46.1 45.1 45.7 46.0 46.2 45.8 ..
Russian Federation 42.4 42.2 41.8 41.8 41.9 41.7 41.4 41.2 40.9 .. .. .. ..
Serbia 43.7 44.7 47.0 47.2 47.4 48.8 49.3 49.6 50.5 49.1 49.2 48.4 50.0
Slovakia 41.5 41.8 42.3 42.3 42.5 42.4 42.6 42.3 42.7 42.5 42.2 41.4 ..
Slovenia 34.8 35.3 34.9 35.1 35.7 36.3 36.4 35.8 36.0 36.1 36.5 34.5 ..
Spain 36.7 36.7 37.0 37.5 38.1 38.4 38.7 38.8 39.3 39.6 40.0 40.2 ..
Sweden 35.7 .. 35.0 .. 35.7 .. 37.2 .. 33.3 .. 33.7 .. ..
Switzerland .. .. .. 30.2 .. .. .. 32.4 .. .. 33.5 .. ..
Tajikistan .. .. .. .. .. .. 26.7 31.1 36.2 37.6 39.8 41.6 40.0
Turkey 36.1 36.3 36.7 36.5 36.3 35.8 35.6 36.2 36.2 36.9 37.3 36.7 37.0
Ukraine 44.1 44.2 43.9 45.0 44.8 45.2 45.5 45.8 45.8 45.8 46.3 45.0 44.7
North Macedonia 49.1 50.1 50.0 51.4 51.3 54.8 55.6 52.6 .. .. 49.0 50.8 ..
United Kingdom 35.7 .. 36.8 .. 37.9 38.3 37.7 37.8 38.1 37.4 38.6 38.7 ..
Uzbekistan 39.4 42.3 41.2 40.8 43.0 41.2 40.9 41.2 41.7 40.6 41.1 41.1 41.1