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Unemployment rate, women



Unemployment rate, women
Percent

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Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Albania 17.2 16.8 12.2 13.7 15.8 15.9 14.4 11.7 13.5 15.2 17.1 14.4 12.6 .. ..
Azerbaijan 7.3 6.3 5.5 5.5 6.6 6.9 6.4 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.9 6.0 5.9 .. ..
Austria 5.9 5.6 5.3 4.4 5.1 4.6 4.6 4.8 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.6 5.0 4.7 4.4
Armenia 37.6 34.3 35.4 22.0 21.2 21.2 19.6 18.2 18.1 19.5 19.5 17.8 17.5 .. ..
Belgium 9.5 9.3 8.5 7.6 8.1 8.5 7.2 7.4 8.2 7.9 7.8 7.6 7.1 5.6 4.9
Bosnia and Herzegovina .. 34.9 32.9 26.8 25.6 29.9 29.9 30.7 29.0 31.2 30.7 .. .. .. ..
Bulgaria 9.8 9.3 7.3 5.8 6.6 9.6 10.1 10.8 11.8 10.4 8.4 7.0 6.0 4.7 3.9
Belarus .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3.7 3.7 4.2 4.0 .. ..
Canada 6.5 6.1 5.6 5.7 7.0 7.2 7.0 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.2 5.8 .. ..
Croatia 13.9 12.8 11.4 10.4 10.7 12.4 13.8 16.1 16.8 18.3 16.9 13.8 11.9 9.4 7.2
Cyprus 6.5 5.4 4.6 4.3 5.5 6.4 7.7 11.1 15.2 15.1 14.8 13.4 11.3 8.8 8.0
Czechia 9.8 8.9 6.7 5.6 7.7 8.5 7.9 8.2 8.3 7.4 6.1 4.7 3.6 2.8 2.4
Denmark 5.3 4.5 4.2 4.1 5.7 6.8 7.6 7.8 7.7 7.1 6.5 6.4 6.1 5.3 5.3
Estonia 6.9 5.6 3.8 5.1 10.3 14.1 11.6 9.1 8.2 6.8 6.1 6.1 5.3 5.3 4.8
Finland 8.6 8.1 7.2 6.7 7.6 7.6 7.1 7.1 7.5 8.0 8.8 8.6 8.4 7.3 6.2
France 9.3 9.1 8.1 7.4 8.8 9.1 9.1 9.4 9.8 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.4 9.1 8.4
Georgia 13.9 13.3 16.5 17.6 16.9 15.5 15.3 16.1 14.6 12.3 12.4 10.9 12.7 .. ..
Germany 10.9 10.2 8.8 7.7 7.3 6.5 5.6 5.2 4.9 4.6 4.2 3.8 3.3 2.9 2.7
Greece 15.4 13.8 12.9 11.5 13.3 16.4 21.5 28.2 31.4 30.2 28.9 28.1 26.1 24.2 21.5
Hungary 7.4 7.9 7.7 8.0 9.7 10.7 11.0 10.6 10.1 7.9 7.0 5.1 4.6 4.0 3.5
Iceland 2.6 3.1 2.3 2.6 5.7 6.7 6.2 5.7 5.1 4.8 4.1 3.0 2.7 2.5 3.1
Ireland 4.0 4.2 4.9 5.7 9.5 11.4 12.5 12.8 12.4 10.9 8.9 7.6 6.3 5.7 4.7
Israel 9.5 8.9 7.9 6.5 7.5 6.5 5.6 7.0 6.2 5.9 5.4 4.9 4.3 .. ..
Italy 10.1 8.8 7.8 8.5 9.2 9.6 9.6 11.8 13.1 13.8 12.7 12.8 12.4 11.8 11.1
Kazakhstan 9.6 9.2 8.7 7.9 7.5 6.6 6.2 6.5 5.9 5.8 5.9 5.5 5.4 .. ..
Kyrgyzstan 9.1 7.5 7.6 9.4 9.8 9.9 9.9 9.5 9.7 9.5 9.0 8.7 8.9 .. ..
Latvia 10.0 6.7 5.6 7.1 14.1 16.3 13.8 14.0 11.1 9.8 8.6 8.4 7.7 6.4 5.4
Liechtenstein .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2.3 2.0 .. ..
Lithuania 8.5 5.6 4.3 5.6 10.5 14.5 12.9 11.6 10.5 9.2 8.2 6.7 5.7 5.4 5.5
Luxembourg 5.8 6.2 4.7 6.0 6.1 5.1 6.3 5.9 6.4 5.8 7.4 6.6 5.5 5.9 5.5
Malta 8.4 8.3 7.9 6.8 7.6 7.1 7.1 7.2 6.1 5.1 5.4 5.2 4.3 3.5 4.0
Republic of Moldova 6.0 5.7 3.9 3.4 4.9 5.7 5.6 4.3 4.1 3.1 3.6 2.9 3.3 .. ..
Montenegro 26.2 30.1 20.9 17.9 20.4 20.7 20.0 20.3 18.8 18.2 17.3 .. .. .. ..
Netherlands 6.9 6.2 5.2 4.5 4.9 5.5 5.4 6.2 7.3 7.8 7.3 6.5 5.3 4.0 3.4
Norway 4.2 3.3 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.9 3.0 2.6 3.2 3.2 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.4
Poland 19.2 14.9 10.4 8.0 8.7 10.0 10.4 10.9 11.1 9.6 7.7 6.2 4.9 3.9 3.6
Portugal 8.8 9.0 9.7 8.9 10.3 12.1 13.2 15.7 16.6 14.5 12.8 11.3 9.4 7.5 7.2
Romania 6.4 6.1 5.4 4.7 5.8 6.2 6.5 6.1 6.3 6.1 5.8 5.0 4.0 3.5 3.4
Russian Federation 6.9 6.7 5.6 5.9 7.7 6.8 6.0 5.1 5.2 .. .. .. .. .. ..
Serbia 26.2 24.7 21.0 15.8 17.8 20.2 23.7 24.9 23.8 20.3 18.8 16.1 14.3 .. ..
Slovakia 17.2 14.7 12.7 10.9 12.8 14.6 13.6 14.5 14.5 13.6 12.9 10.8 8.4 7.0 6.0
Slovenia 7.1 7.2 5.9 4.8 5.8 7.1 8.2 9.4 10.9 10.6 10.1 8.6 7.5 5.7 5.0
Spain 12.0 11.4 10.7 12.8 18.1 20.2 21.8 25.1 26.7 25.4 23.6 21.4 19.0 17.0 16.0
Sweden 7.7 7.3 6.5 6.6 8.0 8.5 7.8 7.7 7.9 7.7 7.3 6.6 6.4 6.2 7.0
Switzerland 5.1 4.7 4.5 4.0 4.5 5.2 4.8 4.7 4.9 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.1 4.7
Tajikistan .. .. .. .. 10.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. 5.5 .. .. ..
Turkey 11.2 9.1 9.2 10.0 12.7 11.4 10.1 9.4 10.6 11.9 12.6 13.7 13.9 13.8 16.5
Ukraine 6.8 6.6 6.0 6.1 7.3 6.8 6.8 6.4 6.2 7.5 8.1 7.7 7.7 .. ..
North Macedonia 38.4 37.2 35.5 34.2 32.8 32.3 30.8 30.3 29.0 28.6 25.1 22.8 21.8 19.9 18.4
United Kingdom 4.3 5.0 5.0 5.1 6.4 6.9 7.4 7.4 7.1 5.8 5.1 4.7 4.2 4.0 3.5
United States 5.1 4.6 4.5 5.4 8.1 8.6 8.5 7.9 7.1 6.1 5.2 4.8 4.3 .. ..
Uzbekistan 0.3 0.3 5.9 5.7 5.9 6.3 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.9 5.0 .. .. .. ..
Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Albania 17.2 16.8 12.2 13.7 15.8 15.9 14.4 11.7 13.5 15.2 17.1 14.4 12.6 .. ..
Azerbaijan 7.3 6.3 5.5 5.5 6.6 6.9 6.4 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.9 6.0 5.9 .. ..
Austria 5.9 5.6 5.3 4.4 5.1 4.6 4.6 4.8 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.6 5.0 4.7 4.4
Armenia 37.6 34.3 35.4 22.0 21.2 21.2 19.6 18.2 18.1 19.5 19.5 17.8 17.5 .. ..
Belgium 9.5 9.3 8.5 7.6 8.1 8.5 7.2 7.4 8.2 7.9 7.8 7.6 7.1 5.6 4.9
Bosnia and Herzegovina .. 34.9 32.9 26.8 25.6 29.9 29.9 30.7 29.0 31.2 30.7 .. .. .. ..
Bulgaria 9.8 9.3 7.3 5.8 6.6 9.6 10.1 10.8 11.8 10.4 8.4 7.0 6.0 4.7 3.9
Belarus .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3.7 3.7 4.2 4.0 .. ..
Canada 6.5 6.1 5.6 5.7 7.0 7.2 7.0 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.2 5.8 .. ..
Croatia 13.9 12.8 11.4 10.4 10.7 12.4 13.8 16.1 16.8 18.3 16.9 13.8 11.9 9.4 7.2
Cyprus 6.5 5.4 4.6 4.3 5.5 6.4 7.7 11.1 15.2 15.1 14.8 13.4 11.3 8.8 8.0
Czechia 9.8 8.9 6.7 5.6 7.7 8.5 7.9 8.2 8.3 7.4 6.1 4.7 3.6 2.8 2.4
Denmark 5.3 4.5 4.2 4.1 5.7 6.8 7.6 7.8 7.7 7.1 6.5 6.4 6.1 5.3 5.3
Estonia 6.9 5.6 3.8 5.1 10.3 14.1 11.6 9.1 8.2 6.8 6.1 6.1 5.3 5.3 4.8
Finland 8.6 8.1 7.2 6.7 7.6 7.6 7.1 7.1 7.5 8.0 8.8 8.6 8.4 7.3 6.2
France 9.3 9.1 8.1 7.4 8.8 9.1 9.1 9.4 9.8 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.4 9.1 8.4
Georgia 13.9 13.3 16.5 17.6 16.9 15.5 15.3 16.1 14.6 12.3 12.4 10.9 12.7 .. ..
Germany 10.9 10.2 8.8 7.7 7.3 6.5 5.6 5.2 4.9 4.6 4.2 3.8 3.3 2.9 2.7
Greece 15.4 13.8 12.9 11.5 13.3 16.4 21.5 28.2 31.4 30.2 28.9 28.1 26.1 24.2 21.5
Hungary 7.4 7.9 7.7 8.0 9.7 10.7 11.0 10.6 10.1 7.9 7.0 5.1 4.6 4.0 3.5
Iceland 2.6 3.1 2.3 2.6 5.7 6.7 6.2 5.7 5.1 4.8 4.1 3.0 2.7 2.5 3.1
Ireland 4.0 4.2 4.9 5.7 9.5 11.4 12.5 12.8 12.4 10.9 8.9 7.6 6.3 5.7 4.7
Israel 9.5 8.9 7.9 6.5 7.5 6.5 5.6 7.0 6.2 5.9 5.4 4.9 4.3 .. ..
Italy 10.1 8.8 7.8 8.5 9.2 9.6 9.6 11.8 13.1 13.8 12.7 12.8 12.4 11.8 11.1
Kazakhstan 9.6 9.2 8.7 7.9 7.5 6.6 6.2 6.5 5.9 5.8 5.9 5.5 5.4 .. ..
Kyrgyzstan 9.1 7.5 7.6 9.4 9.8 9.9 9.9 9.5 9.7 9.5 9.0 8.7 8.9 .. ..
Latvia 10.0 6.7 5.6 7.1 14.1 16.3 13.8 14.0 11.1 9.8 8.6 8.4 7.7 6.4 5.4
Liechtenstein .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2.3 2.0 .. ..
Lithuania 8.5 5.6 4.3 5.6 10.5 14.5 12.9 11.6 10.5 9.2 8.2 6.7 5.7 5.4 5.5
Luxembourg 5.8 6.2 4.7 6.0 6.1 5.1 6.3 5.9 6.4 5.8 7.4 6.6 5.5 5.9 5.5
Malta 8.4 8.3 7.9 6.8 7.6 7.1 7.1 7.2 6.1 5.1 5.4 5.2 4.3 3.5 4.0
Republic of Moldova 6.0 5.7 3.9 3.4 4.9 5.7 5.6 4.3 4.1 3.1 3.6 2.9 3.3 .. ..
Montenegro 26.2 30.1 20.9 17.9 20.4 20.7 20.0 20.3 18.8 18.2 17.3 .. .. .. ..
Netherlands 6.9 6.2 5.2 4.5 4.9 5.5 5.4 6.2 7.3 7.8 7.3 6.5 5.3 4.0 3.4
Norway 4.2 3.3 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.9 3.0 2.6 3.2 3.2 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.4
Poland 19.2 14.9 10.4 8.0 8.7 10.0 10.4 10.9 11.1 9.6 7.7 6.2 4.9 3.9 3.6
Portugal 8.8 9.0 9.7 8.9 10.3 12.1 13.2 15.7 16.6 14.5 12.8 11.3 9.4 7.5 7.2
Romania 6.4 6.1 5.4 4.7 5.8 6.2 6.5 6.1 6.3 6.1 5.8 5.0 4.0 3.5 3.4
Russian Federation 6.9 6.7 5.6 5.9 7.7 6.8 6.0 5.1 5.2 .. .. .. .. .. ..
Serbia 26.2 24.7 21.0 15.8 17.8 20.2 23.7 24.9 23.8 20.3 18.8 16.1 14.3 .. ..
Slovakia 17.2 14.7 12.7 10.9 12.8 14.6 13.6 14.5 14.5 13.6 12.9 10.8 8.4 7.0 6.0
Slovenia 7.1 7.2 5.9 4.8 5.8 7.1 8.2 9.4 10.9 10.6 10.1 8.6 7.5 5.7 5.0
Spain 12.0 11.4 10.7 12.8 18.1 20.2 21.8 25.1 26.7 25.4 23.6 21.4 19.0 17.0 16.0
Sweden 7.7 7.3 6.5 6.6 8.0 8.5 7.8 7.7 7.9 7.7 7.3 6.6 6.4 6.2 7.0
Switzerland 5.1 4.7 4.5 4.0 4.5 5.2 4.8 4.7 4.9 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.1 4.7
Tajikistan .. .. .. .. 10.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. 5.5 .. .. ..
Turkey 11.2 9.1 9.2 10.0 12.7 11.4 10.1 9.4 10.6 11.9 12.6 13.7 13.9 13.8 16.5
Ukraine 6.8 6.6 6.0 6.1 7.3 6.8 6.8 6.4 6.2 7.5 8.1 7.7 7.7 .. ..
North Macedonia 38.4 37.2 35.5 34.2 32.8 32.3 30.8 30.3 29.0 28.6 25.1 22.8 21.8 19.9 18.4
United Kingdom 4.3 5.0 5.0 5.1 6.4 6.9 7.4 7.4 7.1 5.8 5.1 4.7 4.2 4.0 3.5
United States 5.1 4.6 4.5 5.4 8.1 8.6 8.5 7.9 7.1 6.1 5.2 4.8 4.3 .. ..
Uzbekistan 0.3 0.3 5.9 5.7 5.9 6.3 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.9 5.0 .. .. .. ..

Footnote:  
The unemployed are all the persons above a specific age who, during the reference period, were:
(a) without work, i.e. were not in paid employment or self-employment, and
(b) currently available for work, i.e. were available for paid employment or self-employment during the reference period, and
(c) seeking work, i.e. had taken specific steps in a specified reference period to seek paid employment or self-employment.